Shafts vary in thickness and diameter: these differ depending on the archer's draw length and draw weight. There are four types of shaft.
These are ideal for short and medium distances. They are a little heavy for long distances. Aluminium shafts have a long lifespan. Aluminium arrows are ideal for beginners and their weight reduces the affects of a bad release or a mistake with the bow arm.
These are very well suited to long distances. They are solid and keep their shape, are lighter than aluminium arrows, and also hit the target better than aluminium arrow.
Aluminium and Carbon shafts
These shafts are the best, but also the most expensive. With a layer each of aluminium and carbon, they have the best of both: they are light, suited to all distances, solid, etc...
Wooden arrows are rarely used. They are mainly used for archery using a longbow.